White Papers

6 Reasons Why Vitrified Clay Pipe

A promotional brochure discussing the primary benefits of clay pipe. Brief discussions of longevity, structural integrity, tight joints, corrosion resistance, flow characteristics and abrasion resist...


7 Requirements of a Successful Microtunneling Pipe and Why Clay Pipe Meets them all

Article discusses microtunneling and the requirements for a good jacking pipe. Relates six primary reasons why clay makes a great jacking pipe. Topics covered are compressive strength, dimensional a...


City of Sergeant Bluff, IA Chooses Pilot Tube Microtunneling over Open Trench Construction

The city of Sergeant Bluff IA is located in Western Iowa next to the Missouri River. The First Street Lift Station Elimination and Sewer project was planned to eliminate an aging, costly lift statio...


CLSM as a Pipe Bedding: Computing Predicted Load using the Modified Marston Equation

Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM), as a structural material for bedding vitrified clay pipe, is a mix consisting of Portland cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, entrained air, and c...


Low Pressure Air Test for Sanitary Sewers

The low pressure air test has been proven to be an accurate method of testing a sewer line. This test is used either for line acceptance or leak location.


NCPI and NYC Research Project an Evaluation of Four Bedding Systems

The purpose of the National Clay Pipe Institute (NCPI) / New York City (NYC) Research Project was to evaluate alternate clay pipe installation systems to address the structural problems associated wit...


Pilot Tube Microtunneling Chosen in Omaha Nebraska

Omaha, NE, stretching along the Missouri River for 7 miles, is currently under a consent order with the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality to improve the water quality in the Missouri River....


Sustainability and Vitrified Clay Pipe

Many products that are used in today’s market are considered “Green” because of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1992. In essence, if a material has the ability to be recycled it was des...


The First Major Pilot Tube Microtunneling Project in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area

The Pilot tube method of microtunneling (PTMT) was selected to construct the Black Creek Sanitary Relief Sewer project for the Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District. The project is located in the par...